Hepatitis is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver as a result of this is blocking the passage of bile by the liver to break down fat, and altered liver function to remove toxins from the blood, producing various important substances and store and distribute glucose, vitamins and minerals.
What are the causes?
The infection is caused by several types of virus and therefore characterize the hepatitis A, B, C and D depending on the type of virus responsible in each case. Hepatitis A (infectious) is spread by fecal oral route and through certain foods (shellfish), water or contaminated materials. Between infection and the onset of symptoms (incubation period) after 15 to 50 days. Hepatitis B (serum) is spread by blood (blood or contaminated needles), sweat, semen, saliva or tears and vaginal secretions through wounds or mucous membranes. It is also transmitted through the placenta to the fetus, and through sexual contacts. The C and D are of similar characteristics to the B.
The most frequent symptoms of Hepatitis A
are: • Fever • Loss of appetite · malaise, fatigue · nausea and upset stomach · jaundice (yellowing of skin and eye) · pain in the upper abdomen. In hepatitis B are similar but slower and also brings up a box like the flu, with muscle aches, headache, or itching of the skin and arthritis. All of these symptoms last for 1 to 6 weeks and jaundice for about three weeks.
The complications of hepatitis may lead to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer in some cases. Some of those affected (between 5 and 10%) become chronic carriers of the virus and are thus transmitted disease. To confirm the diagnosis was made of the blood analysis revealed an abnormal elevation of liver enzymes. After various tests are performed to determine the cause of each hepatitis virus.
TREATMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The most effective method is the application of Engerix-B, which can be administered at any age (protection from 90% to 95%). The vaccination schedule is an initial dose, another month and another at 6 months ( total 3 doses). Given I / M in the deltoid (shoulder) adult or thigh in children. Precise indications for vaccination are: • At birth · Teens (by the onset of sexual activity and drug use) • People with sexual promiscuity.
· Personal health. A few months ago appeared on the market a new vaccine in two doses (in 2 years) against hepatitis A. This vaccine is effective in 80 to 98% of the cases, getting protection from four to twenty-five. Living with a person affected by hepatitis A, wash the dishes, glasses, and utensils with hot water. Pregnant women with hepatitis B transmitted the disease to the baby. In these cases it is advisable to vaccinate the baby at birth and during their first year of life. Hepatitis C is not transmitted through the placenta but as is often associated with hepatitis B and thus are recommended similar measures.
There is no treatment of the infection, so you are advised to rest and proper diet rich in protein and low fat, until the levels of transaminase in the blood drop. It should drink plenty of fluids and avoid certain medications that cause liver toxicity (pain relievers, tranquilizers, etc …). It can prevent hepatitis A with the Gamma globulin injections of a specific, it is effective in 75% of cases when administered before infection with this virus (in the case of risk factors). Protection lasts for five months. It is sometimes given after exposure to the virus (before two weeks after infection) and can prevent or reduce symptoms of the disease. The specific gamma globulin for hepatitis B is given in the case of contagion (or possible infection) and is effective in preventing the disease.