The cancers of the skin are quite common. It did not all the same ” aggressive “. The most feared is the melanoma , because it tends to metastasize early in its evolution, that is to say, to send cancer cells to other organs ( lung , bone , kidney, brain …).
There are other cancers, skin carcinoma (basal and squamous cell) usually appearing in subjects older.
The sun is responsible for skin cancer
The skin cancer is increasing important in 20 years. This increase is directly related to increased sun exposure (holidays, outdoor recreation …).
These are the rays ultraviolet ( UV ) that are responsible for cellular damage. UV-B are the first in question, but UV-A (the sun, lamps and tanning ) are also on trial.
Individuals with a phenotype clear is to say light-skinned , with hair blond or red hair, light eyes (instead of Europe ‘s North), are more vulnerable to develop a cancer of the skin that people with skin darker (Southern Europe). But these are not immune to this disease.
There are familial cases of skin cancer: what we know today on chromosome is the genetic abnormalities that predispose to the development of melanoma.
Attention to children
Exposure of children to the sun intermittently and intensively during the summer months, leading to irreversible cell damage that can lead to melanoma in adulthood.
The scars are the repair of a wound, so a redesign cell: cells that form scar are fragile and are likely to deteriorate more easily. The malignant scars burns exists.
Melanoma is the most serious cancer
Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer. It develops from cells called melanocytes , which contain pigment ( melanin ) giving the color lighter or darker-skinned and orange, which are responsible for tanning .
Melanoma affects young patients and old alike. It is serious because it develops locally on the surface and at depth. Moreover, it may be the cause of metastasis to organs, that is to say that cancer cells detach from the tumor, go in the blood and then piggyback on other organs: the liver , lung, bone.
Moles and melanoma
Melanoma sometimes develops from a mole , but this is not the most frequent case, it can also develop on a healthy area of skin until then.
A grain of beauty or a pigmented lesion that changes: a color change, shape change, an increase in size, a change in topography, episodes of itchy , red or swollen base, indurated, a bleeding , ulceration … should encourage them to seek medical attention.
A skin lesion that appears suddenly, that does not heal quickly, should also encourage them to visit.
Other skin cancers
Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor, often colored, pearl-shaped, it sometimes develops on the face, squamous cell carcinoma tends to spread on the surface, it often bleeds on contact, the surface is generally rough.
Actinic keratosis is a precancerous lesion
It is a common skin lesion in the elderly ( head of bald face, back of hands …), it is directly related to the accumulation of solar radiation over the years.
It comes in the form of a thickening of the skin, a rough surface, more or less dark … It can sometimes become malignant and it is better to remove it ( cryotherapy , laser
1 – Photoprotection:
Do not expose children to the sun, especially before one to two years. For everyone: avoid the sun at midday, between 12 and 16 hours (hours of the sun: 10:00 to 2:00 p.m.).
Most important: do not catch sunburn , sunburn is the alarm is too many! And of course, do more UV exposure until the sunburn is healed.
Beware of creams “very” protective: their effect can be perverted to the extent that some people expose themselves recklessly under the pretext of protection, either because the cream is not good, because it is n ‘ is not put in sufficient quantity or it starts under the action of the sweat or the water , and that its application is not renewed often enough. The clothes are the best protection, the most effective against the sun.
The hats and sunglasses are not accessories , they are just as essential for protection from the sun.
People with a clear phenotype and a history of skin cancer in the family must be very vigilant for themselves and their children. As for people with skin type , dark bronze, are not immune to the dangers of UV.
2 – Self-monitoring:
Because some cancers develop from these growths, it is necessary to monitor them.
It should also be aware of injuries that suddenly appear on healthy skin, sores that will not heal, to grow, bleed, or become darker or lighter.
People with fair skin, with many moles , which were exposed to sunlight in childhood, should be closely monitored, let alone if there are skin cancer in their family
The treatment of skin cancer
Early treatment of skin cancer is the best way to heal. Do not hesitate to consult a doctor, a dermatologist at the discovery of a skin lesion.
Precancerous lesions should be treated (cryotherapy, laser …) and monitored.
Treatment of precancerous lesions on scars will usually surgical and monitoring will be required.
The treatment of a cancerous lesion of the skin will be different depending on the type of cells affected, the extent of the lesion and the number: surgical excision in most cases, laser radiation .
The treatment of basal and squamous cell is surgical resection, with more or less the prescription of radiotherapy or chemotherapy locally.
Recurrences are possible and monitoring is required.
The treatment of melanoma will be more difficult
Resection must be very large; the tumor will be more big, more surgery will be extended up to an amputation. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy are often prescribed. Treatment with interferon may also be proposed after the surgery .