WHAT IS IT?
Skin cancer not melanoma is the most common type of skin cancer. It’s called non melanoma because this group of cancers includes all types of skin cancer, except one: the melanoma malignant, which is cancer that develops from melanocytes.
The exposure to excessive ultraviolet (UV), whose main source is sunlight. The degree of exposure to radiation depends on the intensity of light, the exposure time, and if the skin has been protected. People living in areas where they are exposed to a year-round intense sunlight at higher risk. Being long time outdoors for work or play without protection with appropriate clothing and sunscreen increases risk.
The lamps and tanning beds are other sources of ultraviolet radiation that can cause an increased risk of developing skin cancer melanoma.
Exposure to certain chemicals such as arsenic, industrial tar, coal, paraffin and certain types of oils.
The exposure to radiation as produced by the radiation .
Injury or severe inflammation of the skin or prolonged, such as severe burns, the skin covering the area where there was a serious bone infection, damaged skin and certain inflammatory diseases.
Treatment of psoriasis with psoralen and ultraviolet light given to some patients with psoriasis .
The xeroderma pigmentosum , a rare inherited condition, reduces the ability of the skin to repair the damage to DNA as a consequence of exposure to sunlight. People with this disorder develop a large number of cancerous skin tumors, sometimes since childhood.
The syndrome ne vus basal cell is equally rare congenital condition that causes multiple basal cell cancers. Most cases, though not all, are hereditary.
SYMPTOMS OF SKIN CANCER
As part of a routine cancer-related, the doctor will carefully consider the patient’s skin. But it is equally important that the patient himself check the skin, preferably once a month. You’ll need to know the appearance of moles, blemishes, freckles and other marks on your skin to detect any changes.
do BSE is recommended in front of a full length mirror. For hard to see areas you can use a hand mirror. Should consider all areas, including the palms and soles of the feet, lower back and back legs.
Skin cancer melanoma may not look like various brands in the skin. The main warning signs are the appearance of a new stand, a spot or lump that is growing (within a few months, or 1 to 2 years), or an ulcer does not heal within 3 months.
The basal cell carcinomas appear as red areas, flat and scaly areas or small waxy, shiny and translucent to relief, which may bleed with a minor injury. There may be one or more irregular blood vessels visible, or show areas of blue, brown or black.
The squamous cell carcinomas can appear as growing lumps, often rough or flat as red spots on the skin that grow slowly. These two types of skin cancer melanoma not be developed as a flat area which shows only minor changes compared to normal skin.
The Kaposi sarcoma usually begins as a small area similar to a bruise that becomes a tumor.
Mycosis fungoides begins as a rash, often on the buttocks, hips or lower abdomen. It may seem an allergy of the skin or other irritation of the same.
Tumors of the annexes are presented as lumps under the skin.
Sarcomas of the skin appear as large lumps under the surface thereof. The Mikel cell tumors usually appear as red-purple nodules or ulcers (sores) on the face, or, less often in the arms or legs.
The most important way to reduce the risk of developing skin cancer melanoma is to avoid unprotected exposure to sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet light. The easiest way to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet light is kept out of the sun and shade whenever possible.
This is particularly important at midday, when ultraviolet light is most intense.
Protect yourself with clothing , including a shirt and a brimmed hat. Usually, the tightly woven fabrics offer the best protection against the sun. Sunglasses that offer good coverage, with a percentage of UV absorption of 99% to 100%, optimally protect the eyes and the skin area around them.
The cream of sunscreen with a protection factor of SPF 15 or higher should be used in areas of skin exposed to sunlight, particularly when the sunlight is intense. People with fair skin and burn easily you should apply sunscreen lotion. In applying the lotion, follow the instructions. To be effective it must be applied before sun exposure, and used in all areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Many sunscreens lose their effectiveness when a person sweats or anything, and must be reapplied to offer maximum protection. Lotion should be used if the weather is foggy or overcast sky is light or little compact, since ultraviolet light can pass through them.
Not be used tanning beds . Excessive exposure to ultraviolet light may increase the risk of developing skin cancer.
TYPES OF SKIN CANCER
There are many types of non melanoma skin cancer, but two are most common: basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Basal cell carcinoma
(Basal cell cancer): A slow-growing tumor. It is very unusual for a basal cell cancer to spread to distant parts of the body. However, if a basal cell cancer is left untreated, can spread to nearby areas and invade the bone and other tissues of the skin. After treatment, basal cell carcinoma can recur in the same area of skin.
Squamous cell carcinoma
(Squamous cell carcinoma) develops in the upper layers of the epidermis, and represents about 20% of all cases of skin cancer. Often appears in areas of the body exposed to sunlight, such as the face, ears, neck, lips and backs of hands. May also develop in scars or skin ulcers elsewhere in the body.
Other types of non-melanoma skin cancer, less common than the above are:
: It originates in the dermis, but also can form in internal organs. Usually develops in people living with human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) or suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ).
. The dermis contains a considerable number of lymphocytes (a type of immune system cells). When they become malignant lymphoma form. Although most of these cancers appear to originate in the lymph nodes or internal organs, there are certain types of lymphoma that originate in the skin. The medical term “primary cutaneous” means “lymphoma that originated in the skin.” The type of primary cutaneous lymphoma is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, also called mycosis fungoides.
: They develop from connective tissue cells, generally in tissues that are at a great depth below the skin. Much less often, they can occur in the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue of the skin. There are several types of sarcoma that can develop in the skin, including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and angiosarcoma.
The Merkel cell carcinoma
: It develops from the endocrine cells of the skin. They often reappear after treatment and extend to nearby lymph nodes. They can also spread to internal organs.
There are also benign skin tumors, most of which are not cancerous, and only rarely come to cancer. These tumors are most types of moles, seborrheic keratosis (patches with raised, brown, brown or black with a “waxy” texture or rough surface), hemangiomas (benign tumors of blood vessels) , lipomas (soft tumors of benign fat cells) and warts (rough tumors caused by a virus).
The actinic keratosis. It is a precancerous skin condition caused by exposure to sunlight. They are small rough spots that can be colored red , pink or skin color. They typically develop on the face, ears, backs of hands and arms of middle-aged or older who have light skin, but can also occur in other areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Generally, people who have an actinic keratosis develop many more. They usually grow slowly and cause no more symptoms or signs of skin blemishes. It is possible but not common, for actinic keratoses turn into squamous cell cancer. Also often disappear by themselves, but may reappear.
The squamous cell carcinoma in situ or Bowen’s Disease : This is the earliest form of skin cancer squamous cell carcinoma. The cancer cells are completely within the epidermis, and have not been extended to the dermis. It manifests as red spots. Compared with actinic keratosis, the patches of squamous cell carcinoma in situ are usually larger, often more than ½ inch, of a deeper red and more scaly and rough.
If there is any reason to suspect a skin cancer, the doctor will use one or more methods to determine if the disease is actually present. The doctor will look at the size, shape, color and texture of the area in question, and if there is bleeding or scaling. will explore the rest of the body for spots and moles that may be related to skin cancer . It may be necessary to ask other questions or other tests, depending on your state of health, in particular.
If the doctor thinks an area could present a non-skin cancer melanoma, it will take a skin sample from the suspicious area for examination under a microscope. This is called a skin biopsy. For this test can be used different methods. The method chosen depends on the type of skin cancer non melanoma, location thereof in the body and the size of the affected area.
Removal is the most common treatment of these injuries, which can be supplemented with so-called Mohs surgery depending on the location or if the stain has a considerable size.
The simple excision is the removal of the tumor and some tissue around it.
Mohs surgery : Remove the layer of the skin affected by cancer and later removed the surrounding tissue by comparing the two tests under the microscope. * Cryosurgery: Using Liquid Nitrogen freeze and destroy cancer cells.
Laser surgery : Used in very superficial carcinomas on applying the laser to vaporize cancer cells.
Electrodesiccation : the tumor is removed by scraping the tissue, and then it was the area where the stain with an electric needle to destroy remaining cancer cells.
Chemotherapy : The drug most frequently used is fluorouracil, which used topically deformed into the cells nearest the skin surface so it will be used only for pre malignant conditions. This medicine reddens the area where it applies, and makes it more sensitive to the sun, so it will be protected from the sun for a few weeks.
Radiation : Is the use of as X-rays to destroy cancer cells. The treatment lasts a few minutes and is not painful but it is something like an X-ray radiation is only higher and concentrated in the affected area. It is used in patients who can not undergo surgery, such as very old people may have problems for surgery. This treatment can cure those cancers which are in low stages. Also be used as an adjunct to surgery.