Archive for April, 2012
A doctor will perform a series of blood tests and urine tests that will help establish the presence of kidney stones. Different imaging techniques are used to diagnose kidney stones, including tomography computer or an IVP, a type of radiological examination of the urinary tract.
If the presence of a kidney stone is discovered, a doctor may request a metabolic balance that would allow him to assess all the body’s reactions and to identify a metabolic disorder. This process may involve blood tests and urine samples excreted over 24 hours (as urinalysis, the urine pH and urine culture). If a stone is passed, will release an analysis of its components. Read the rest of this entry »
A kidney stone is formed when a small grain of a mineral substance circulating in the urine is deposited in the kidney or ureter, a duct that connects the kidney to the bladder. Other minerals agglutineront the small grain which will increase volume and make a stony consistency over time.
There are four main types of kidney stones, and their classification is based on the chemical substances which consist of: calcium salts (calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, a mixture of calcium oxalate and phosphate calcium), magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), uric acid or cystine. Sometimes, though rarely, that some drugs are the cause of calculations after solidification into crystals in the urine. Kidney stones are most commonly composed of calcium oxalate naturally present in urine. Read the rest of this entry »
To diagnose bladder cancer, we must obtain the patient’s medical history, including its former working conditions, opportunities for exposure to chemicals and lifestyle habits, like smoking.After noting that information and performed a physical examination, the doctor will probably have a vaginal or rectal examination to rule out other possible causes of symptoms.
Blood tests used to check kidney function and urine tests, to detect the presence of blood or cancer cells. Then we performed a cystoscopy. The doctor inserts a thin tube called a cystoscope into the urethra (tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside during urination) and traces it back to the bladder.
With the cystoscope, the doctor can see inside the bladder, look for abnormalities and remove a small tissue sample (biopsy) to check for cancer cells. Cystoscopy can be performed under local or general anesthesia.
Once the cancer has been diagnosed, one must determine the cancer stage (how far it has progressed). To this end, the doctor asks some of the following tests:
- computed tomography (CT) examination reveals the presence of tumors or abnormalities in the urinary tract (this includes the bladder, kidneys, urethra and ureters).
- a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a more sophisticated than CT scans, which reveal any abnormality in the bladder or urinary tract.
- an IVP: a review in which one injects a contrast agent which concentrates in the urine And second, we take x-rays that show the path of urine with obstruction or anomaly, if applicable.
- bone scan: to determine whether the cancer has spread to the bones.
- chest radiography: determining whether the cancer has spread to the lungs. Read the rest of this entry »
In bladder cancer, cancer cells invade the bladder harmful and destroy normal cells And the bladder can no longer function properly.
The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine as it is filtered by the kidneys. Its flexible wall consisting of three layers of fabric, allows it to stretch and contract as needed. Most bladder cancers (90%) are implanted in the epithelial lining, the deepest layer of the wall.
The bladder cancer is the 6th most common cancer in Canada. Its incidence is two to three times higher in men than in women, and two times higher among Caucasians than among those original African. In North America, it ranks fourth in men and the ninth in women, in terms of frequency.
Thanks to earlier diagnosis and improved treatment, mortality rates for this disease have declined significantly over the past 25 years. Read the rest of this entry »
If you think you have appendicitis, seek immediate medical attention. In case of constipation, laxatives should be avoided because they can cause an instant failure.
Appendicitis is usually diagnosed during a physical examination by a physician. The doctor will perform a number of tests that may also provide information on the extent and location of inflammation. After a physical examination, a blood test may be performed to check for infection. The doctor might also take a urine sample to eliminate the possibility of a urinary tract infection, symptoms of such infection may be similar to those of appendicitis.
Sometimes we use an ultrasound to help determine the diagnosis. Occasionally, a CT scan of the abdomen is necessary for patients when other tests do not provide definitive results.
Other conditions that can be confused with appendicitis include colitis, Crohn’s disease, gastritis, gastroenteritis, tubal pregnancy and ovarian problems. Read the rest of this entry »